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Civil society advocacy

Barnes, C., Van Laerhoven, F., & Driessen, P. P. (2016). Advocating for change? How a civil society-led coalition influences the implementation of the forest rights act in India. World Development84, 162-175.

Barrett, J. B., van Wessel, M. G. J., Hilhorst, D. J. M., Arensman, B., Klaver, D. C., Richert, W., ... & Wagemakers, A. (2016). Advocacy for development: Effectiveness, monitoring and evaluation. Wageningen: Wageningen University.

Berglund, H. (2017). Civil society and political protest in India. The case of Coca-Cola in Kerala. India Review16(3), 324-343.

Deo, N. and McDuie-Ra, D. (2011). The politics of collective advocacy in India: tools and traps. Sterling: Kumarian Press

Green, D. (2016). How change happens. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Haylor, G., & Savage, W. (Eds.). (2018). Facilitated Advocacy for Sustainable Development: An Approach and Its Paradoxes. London: Routledge.

Kamstra, J., & Knippenberg, L. (2014). Promoting democracy in Ghana: Exploring the democratic roles of donor-sponsored non-governmental organizations. Democratization21(4), 583-609.

Kumar, V. A., (2012). Speaking truth to power? Civil society and policy advocacy in India. Journal of Asian Public Policy5(1), 41-47. 

Ray, R. (2000). Fields of protest: women’s movements in India. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Rossteutscher, S. (Ed.). (2005). Democracy and the role of associations: Political, organizational and social contexts (Vol. 38). Abingdon: Routledge.

Shigetomi, S. (2009). Protest and social movements in the developing world. Cheltenham” Edward Elgar Publishing.


Civic space

Aarts, P., & Cavatorta, F. (2013). Civil society in Syria and Iran: activism in authoritarian contexts. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Alagappa, M. (2004). Civil society and political change in Asia: expanding and contracting democratic space. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Chacko, P. (2018). The right turn in India: Authoritarianism, populism and neoliberalisation. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 48(4) 541-565.

Carothers, T. and Brechenmache.r S. (2014). Closing Space: Democracy and Human Rights Support Under Fire. Washington, DC:Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Chakrabarti, K., Saravanamuttu, P., Tahseen, M., Wu, C.E., Magno, F.A. & Thu, M. (2018). Civic space in Asia: Emerging issues and policy lessons from six Asian countries. Available at:

Dupuy K, Ron, J.and Prakash, A. (2016). Hands off my regime! Governments’ restrictions on foreign aid to non-governmental organizations in poor and middle-income countries. World Development 84, 299-311.

Hossain, N., Khurana, N., Mohmand, S., Nazneen, S., Oosterom, M., Roberts, T., Santos, R., Shankland, A. & Schröder, P. (2018). What Does Closing Civic Space Mean for Development? A Literature Review and Proposed Conceptual Framework. Sussex:Institute of Development Studies

Lorch, J. & Bunk, B. (2017). Using civil society as an authoritarian legitimation strategy: Algeria and Mozambique in comparative perspective. Democratization 24(6), 987-1005.

Lewis, D. (2013). Civil society and the authoritarian state: Cooperation, contestation and discourse. Journal of Civil Society 9(3), 325-340.

Rutzen, D. (2015). Authoritarianism goes global (II): Civil society under assault. Journal of Democracy26(4), 28–39.

Rutzen, D. (2015). Civil society under assault. Journal of Democracy26(4), 28-39

Singh, R. & Behar, A. (2018). India civil society: Beyond the cooperation-competition binary. In: Marchetti, R. (Ed.) Government-NGO Relationships in Africa, Asia, Europe and MENA (pp. 114-138). Delhi: Routledge.

Spires, A.J. (2011). Contingent symbiosis and civil society in an authoritarian state: Understanding the survival of China’s grassroots NGOs. American Journal of Sociology 117(1), 1-45.

Tadesse, H.A. and Steen, T. (2019). Exploring the impact of political context on state–civil society relations: Actors’ strategies in a developmental state. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations

Van der Borgh, C. and Terwindt, C. (2014). NGOs Under Pressure in Partial Democracies. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Van der Borg, C. and Terwindt, C. (2012). Shrinking operational space of NGOs. A framework of analysis. Development in Practice22(8), 1065-1081.


Civil society and capacity development

Antlöv, H., Brinkerhoff, D. W., & Rapp, E. (2010). Civil society capacity building for democratic reform: Experience and lessons from Indonesia. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations21(3), 417-439.

Blagescu, M., & Young, J. (2006). Capacity development for policy advocacy: current thinking and approaches among agencies supporting civil society organizations. London: Overseas Development Institute.

Bolger, J. (2000). Capacity development: why, what and how. Capacity Development Occasional Series1(1), 1-8.

Brinkerhoff, D. W., & Morgan. P. J. (2010). Capacity and capacity development: Coping with complexity. Public Administration and Development30(1), 2-10. 

Eger, C., Miller, G., & Scarles, C. (2018). Gender and capacity building: A multi-layered study of empowerment. World Development106, 207-219. 

Ellerman, D. (2002). Autonomy-respecting assistance: towards new strategies for capacity-building and development assistance. Capacity for development: new solutions to old problems, 42-60.

Girgis, M. (2007). The capacity-building paradox: using friendship to build capacity in the South. Development in Practice17(3), 353-366.

Janssens, W. (2010). Women’s empowerment and the creation of social capital in Indian villages. World Development38(7), 974-988.

Kühl, S. (2009). Capacity development as the model for development aid organizations. Development and Change40(3), 551-577.

Krishna, A. (2002). Active social capital: Tracing the roots of development and democracy. New York: Columbia University Press.

Lavergne, R., & Saxby, J. (2001). Capacity development: vision and implications. Capacity Development Occasional Series3, 1-11.

Lopes, C., & Theison, T. (2003). Ownership, Leadership and Transformation: Can we do better for Capacity Development.  London and New York: Earthscan. 

Mathie, A., & Cunningham, G. (2003). From clients to citizens: Asset-based community development as a strategy for community-driven development. Development in practice13(5), 474-486.

Merino, S. S., & de los Ríos Carmenado, I. (2012). Capacity building in development projects. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences46, 960-967.

Sanyal, P. (2014). Credit to capabilities: A sociological study of microcredit groups in India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sanyal, P. (2006). Capacity building through partnership: Intermediary nongovernmental organizations as local and global actors. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly35(1), 66-82.

Quadir, F., & Orgocka, A. (2014). Exploring the role of Western NGOs in creating and strengthening local NGOs in Albania. The European Journal of Development Research26(5), 557-573.

Venner, M. (2015). The concept of ‘capacity’ in development assistance: new paradigm or more of the same?. Global Change, Peace & Security27(1), 85-96.

Wetterberg, A., Brinkerhoff, D. W., & Hertz, J. C. (2015). From compliant to capable: Balanced capacity development for local organisations. Development in Practice25(7), 966-985.


Civil society collaborations and transnational advocacy

AbouAssi, K. (2013). Hands in the pockets of mercurial donors: NGO response to shifting funding priorities. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly42(3), 584-602. 

Abrahamsen, R. (2004). The power of partnerships in global governance. Third World Quarterly25(8), 1453-1467.

Arensman, B., van Wessel, M., & Hilhorst, D. (2017). Does local ownership bring about effectiveness? The case of a transnational advocacy network. Third World Quarterly38(6), 1310-1326. 

Ashman, D. (2001). Strengthening North-South partnerships for sustainable development. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly30(1), 74-98. 

Baaz, M. E. (2005). The paternalism of partnership. A postcolonial reading of identity in development aid. London: Zed Books. 

Bäckstrand, K. (2006). Multi-stakeholder partnerships for sustainable development: Rethinking legitimacy, accountability and effectiveness. European Environment16(5), 290-306.

Bandy, J., & Smith, J. (2005). Factors affecting conflict and cooperation in transnational movement networks. In J. Bandy. & J. Smith, (Eds.), Coalitions across Borders. Transnational Protest and the Neoliberal Order (pp. 231-52). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. 

Bob, C. (2007). Dalit rights are human rights: Caste discrimination, international activism, and the construction of a new human rights issue. Human Rights Quarterly, 167-193.

Bownas, R. (2017). The upside-down roots of a transnational advocacy network: Applying an ‘organizational ecology’ approach to the anti-GMO network. Global Networks 17(2), 195-211.

Brinkerhoff, J. M. (2002). Partnership for international development: Rhetoric or results? Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Brown, D. L., & Fox, J. (2000). Transnational civil society coalitions and the World Bank: lessons from project and policy influence campaigns. Cambridge: The Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations and The Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. 

Brown, L.D., Ebrahim, A. & Batliwala, S. (2012). Governing international advocacy NGOs. World Development40(6), 1098-1108.

Carpenter, R. C. (2007). Setting the advocacy agenda: theorizing issue emergence and non-emergence in transnational advocacy networks. International Studies Quarterly51(1), 99-120.

Contu, A., & Girei, E. (2014). NGOs management and the value of ‘partnerships’ for equality in international development: What’s in a name? Human Relations67(2), 205-232.

De Almagro, M. M. (2018). Lost boomerangs, the rebound effect and transnational advocacy networks: a discursive approach to norm diffusion. Review of International Studies44(4), 672-693.

Elbers, W. J. (2012). The partnership paradox: principles and practice in North-South NGO relations. PhD Thesis Radboud University.

Elbers, W. & Arts, B. (2011). Keeping body and soul together: Southern NGOs' strategic responses to donor constraints.International Review of Administrative Sciences77(4), 713-732.

Florini, A. (2000). Third force: The rise of transnational civil society. New York: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 

Forsch, S. (2018). Moving to the global South: An analysis of the relocation of international NGO secretariats. St Antony's International Review13, 159-186.

Fowler, A. (2016). Non-governmental development organisations’ sustainability, partnership, and resourcing: futuristic reflections on a problematic trialogue. Development in Practice26(5), 569-579.

Fowler, A. (2000). Beyond partnership: Getting real about NGO relationships in the aid system. IDS Bulletin31(3), 1-13.

Fowler, A. (1998). Authentic NGDO partnership in the new policy agenda for international aid: Dead end or light ahead? Development and Change29(1), 137-159.

Gazley, B., Bennett, T. A. & Littlepage, L. (2013). Achieving the partnership principle in experiential learning: The nonprofit perspective. Journal of Public Affairs Education19(3), 559-579

Green, D. (2015). Fit for the Future? Development trends and the role of international NGOs. Oxford: Oxfam GB.

Guo, C. & Acar, M. (2005). Understanding collaboration among nonprofit organizations: Combining resource dependency, institutional, and network perspectives. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 34(3): 340-361

Hudock, A. C. (1995). Sustaining Southern NGOs in resource-dependent environments. Journal of International Development, 7(4), 653–667.

Jalali, R. (2013). Financing empowerment? How foreign aid to Southern NGOs and social movements undermines grass‐roots mobilization. Sociology Compass7, 55-73.

Johnson, H. and Wilson, G. (2006). North-South/South-North partnerships: Closing the mutuality gap. Public Administration and Development, 26(1): 71–80. 

Jordan, L. & Van Tuijl, P. (2000). Political responsibility in transnational NGO advocacy. World Development, 28(12), 2051-2065.

Keck, M. E., & Sikkink, K. (2014). Activists beyond borders: advocacy networks in international politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Lister, S. (2000). Power in partnership? An analysis of an NGO’s relationships with its partners. Journal of International Development, 12(2): 227-239. 

Magis, K. (2010). Convergence: Finding collective voice in global civil society. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations21(3), 317-338.

Miller-Dawkins, M. (2017). Understanding activism. How international NGOs, foundations, and others can provide better support to social movements. Washington, DC: Rhize/Atlantic Council.

Mitlin, D., Hickey, S., & Bebbington, A. (2007). Reclaiming development? NGOs and the challenge of alternatives. World Development35(10), 1699-1720.

O’Brien, N. F. & Evans, S. K. (2016). Civil society partnerships: power imbalance and mutual dependence in NGO partnerships. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations28(4), 1399-1421. 

Pallas, C. L., and Urpelainen, J. (2013). Mission and interests: The strategic formation and function of North-South NGO campaigns. Global Governance19, 401-423.

Reich, H. (2006). Local Ownership in Conflict Transformation Projects: Partnership, Participation Or Patronage? Berlin: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management.

Saz-Carranza, A., & Ospina, S. M. (2010). The behavioral dimension of governing interorganizational goal-directed networks. Managing the unity-diversity tension. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 21(2), 327-365.

Schaaf, R. (2015). The rhetoric and reality of partnerships for international development. Geography Compass9(2), 68-80.

Seay, H. (2015). Conflict minerals in Congo: The consequences of oversimplification. In A. De Waal (Ed.), Advocacy in conflict. Critical perspectives on transnational activism (pp. 115–137). London: Zed Books

Sundar, P. (2010). Foreign aid to Indian NGOs: Problem or solution? New Delhi: Routledge.

Smith, J., Plummer, S. & Hughes, M. M. (2017). Transnational social movements and changing organizational fields in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Global Networks17(1), 3-22.

Sokphea, Y. (2017). Transnational advocacy networks in global supply chains: A study of civil society organizations’ sugar movements in Cambodia. Journal of Civil Society13(1), 35-53. 

Stroup, S.S. & Murdie, A. (2012). There’s no place like home: Explaining international NGO advocacy. The Review of International Organizations 7, 425-448.

Van Huijstee., M. M., Francken, M. & Leroy, P. (2007). Partnerships for sustainable development: A review of current literature. Environmental Sciences4(2), 75- 89. 

Wallace, T., Bornstein, L. & Chapman, J. (2006). The aid chain: coercion and commitment in development NGOs. Rugby: Intermediate Technology Development Group.

Walton, O. E., Davies, T., Thrandardottir, E., & Keating, V. C. (2016). Understanding contemporary challenges to INGO legitimacy: Integrating top-down and bottom-up perspectives. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations,27(6), 2764-2786.

Wong, W. H. (2012). Internal affairs: How the structure of NGOs transforms human rights. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.

Yanacopulos, H. (2015). International NGO engagement, advocacy, activism: The faces and spaces of change. Basingstoke: Palgrave McMillan.


Civil society and disaster risk reduction

Adger, W N. (2006). Vulnerability. Global Environmental Change, 16, 268-281.

Aldrich, D., & Sawada, Y. (2015). The physical and social determinants of mortality in the 3.11 Tsunami. Social Science & Medicine124, 66-75.

Alexander, D. (2000). Confronting Catastrophe. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bankoff, G. (2001). Rendering the world unsafe: ‘Vulnerability’ as western discourse. Disasters 25(1), 19-35.

Bhattacharjee, M. (2019). Disaster relief and the RSS: Resurrecting ‘religion’ through humanitarianism. New Delhi: Sage.

Benson, C., Twigg, T., & Myers, M. (2001). NGO Initiatives in Risk Reduction: An Overview. Disasters25(3), 199-215.

Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., Davis, I. & Wisner, B. (2014). At risk: natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters. London: Routledge.

Briceno, S. (2015). Looking Back and Beyond Sendai: 25 Years of International Policy Experience on Disaster Risk Reduction, International Journal of Disaster Risk Science,  6, 1-7.

Busby, J, Smith, T G, Krishnan, N, Wight, C, & Vallejo-Gutierrez, S. (2018). In harm's way: Climate security vulnerability in Asia. World Development, 112(C), 88-118.

Cannon, T, & Müller-Mahn, D. (2010). Vulnerability, resilience and development discourses in context of climate change. Natural Hazards, 55(3), 621-635.

Collins, A.E. (2019). Advancing Disaster and Conflict Risk Reduction in H. G. Brauch, U.O. Spring, A.E. Collins & S.E. S Oswald (Eds.), Climate Change, Disasters, Sustainability Transition and Peace in the Anthropocene (pp. 7-26). Cham: Springer Nature Switzerland.

Dagli, S., & Ferrarini, B. (2019). The Growth impact of disasters in developing Asia. Manila: Asian Development Bank.

Department for International Development (DFID). (2005). Disaster risk reduction: a development concern. London: DFID

Dilley, M., Chen., R.C. & Deichmann, U. (2005). Natural disaster hotspots: a global risk analysis. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Gaillard, J-C. (2007). Resilience of traditional societies in facing natural hazards. Disaster Prevention and Management16(4), 522-544.

Hewitt, K. (2007). Preventable disasters: addressing social vulnerability, institutional risk, and civil ethics. Geographische Rundschau, International Edition, 3(1), 43-52.

Hilhorst, D. (Ed.) (2013). Disaster, conflict and society in crises: everyday politics of crisis response. Oxon: Routledge Humanitarian Studies.

Hilhorst, D, Desportes, I, & Miliano, C W J. (2019). Humanitarian governance and resilience building: Ethiopia in comparative perspective. Disasters, 43(52), S109-S131. 

Izumi, T. & Shaw, R. (2014). Civil Society Organization and Disaster Risk Reduction: The Asian Dilemma. Tokyo: Springer

Khan, A. N., & Ali, A. (2014). NGOs and disaster risk reduction in Pakistan. In Atta-Ur- Rahman, A. N. Khan, & R. Shaw (Eds.), Disaster risk reduction approaches in Pakistan (pp. 281-294). Tokyo: Springer.

Lassa, J.A (2018). Roles of Non-Government Organizations in Disaster Risk Reduction. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Natural Hazard Science, Risk Management, Policy and Governance, Preparedness, pp.1-23. Available at:

Luna, E. M. (2001). Disaster mitigation and preparedness: The case of NGOs in the Philippines. Disasters25(3), 216-226.

Maskrey, A. (1989). Disaster mitigation: A community based approach. Oxford: Oxfam.

Mercer, J. (2010). Disaster risk reduction or climate change adaptation: Are we reinventing the wheel? Journal of International Development22, 247-264.

OECD-DAC (1994) Guidelines for aid agencies on disaster mitigation. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Pelling, M. (Ed.) (2003). Natural disasters and development in a globalizing world. London: Routledge

Ray-Bennett, N.S. (2009). Multiple disasters and policy responses pre- and post-independence Orissa, India. Disasters33(2), 274-290.

Sou, G. (2019). Sustainable Resilience? Disaster Recovery and the Marginalisation of Socio-cultural Needs and Concerns. Progress in Development Studies

Torry, WI. (1978). Bureaucracy, community and natural disasters. Human Organization37(3), 302- 307.

Torry, WI. (1979). Anthropological studies in hazardous environments: past trends and new horizons. Current Anthropology20(3), 517-540.

Vaughan, A., & Hillier, D. (2019). Ensuring impact: the role of civil society organisations in strengthening World Bank disaster risk financing. Available at:

Weichselgartner, J., & Obersteiner, M. (2002). Knowing sufficient and applying more: challenges in hazard management, Environmental Hazards4(2-3), 73-77.

Wetterberg, A., Brinkerhoff, D. W. & Hertz, J. C. (2015). From compliant to capable: balanced capacity development for local organisations. Development in Practice25(7), 966-985.

Wisner, B., Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., & Davis, I. (2004). At Risk: Natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters. London: Routledge.


Civil society and the state

Noakes, S. (2017). The advocacy trap: Transnational activism and state power in China. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Banks, N., Hulme, D., & Edwards, M. (2015). NGOs, states, and donors revisited: Still too close for comfort? World Development66, 707-718.

Bernal, V. & Grewal, I. (2014). Theorizing NGOs: states, feminisms, and neoliberalism. Durham: Duke University Press.

Brandsen, T., Trommel, W. & Verschuere, B. (2017). The state and the reconstruction of civil society. International Review of Administrative Sciences83(4), 676-693.

Brinkerhoff, D. (1999). Exploring state-civil society cooperation. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly28 (Supplement), 59-86. 

Bornstein, E., & Sharma, A. (2016). The righteous and the rightful: The technomoral politics of NGOs, social movements, and the state in India. American ethnologist43(1), 76-90. 

Chandhoke, N. (1995). State and civil society: explorations in political theory. Delhi: Sage.

Dryzek, J. S., Downes, D., Hunold, C., Schlosberg, D., & Hernes, H. K. (2003). Green states and social movements: environmentalism in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Norway. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fowler, A. (1991). The role of NGOs in changing state-society relations: Perspectives from eastern and Southern Africa.Development Policy Review9(1), 53-84. 

Goswami, D. &Tandon R. (2013). Civil society in changing India: Emerging roles, relationships, and strategies. Development in Practice, 23(5-6), 653-664.

Harriss, J. (2007) Antinomies of empowerment: Observations on civil society, politics and urban governance in India. Economic and Political Weekly42(26), 2716-2724.

Harrison, T. (2017). NGOs and personal politics: The relationship between NGOs and political leaders in West Bengal, India. World Development98, 485-496.

Kamat, S. (2002). Development hegemony: NGOs and the state in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Kudva, N. (2005). Strong states, strong NGOs. In R. Ray & M.F. Katzenstein (Eds.), Social movements in India: poverty, power, and politics (pp. 233-266). Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.

Lang, S. (2012). NGOs, civil society, and the public sphere. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lewis, D. (2004). On the difficulty of studying ‘civil society’: Reflections on NGOs, state and democracy in Bangladesh. Contributions to Indian Sociology, 38(3), 299-322.

Marchetti, R. (Ed.). (2018). Government–NGO relationships in Africa, Asia, Europe and MENA. London: Routledge.

Mitra, S. K. (2017). India’s democracy at 17: civil society and its shadow. Journal of Democracy28(3), 106-116.

Noakes, S. (2017). The advocacy trap: Transnational activism and state power in China. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Pearce, J. (Ed.) (2000). Development, NGOs, and civil society. Oxford: Oxfam GB.

Randeria, S. (2007). The state of globalization: Legal plurality, overlapping sovereignties and ambiguous alliances between civil society and the cunning state in India. Theory, Culture and Society24(1),1-33.

Riley, J.M. (2002). Stakeholders in rural development: Critical collaboration in State-NGO partnerships. New Delhi: Sage.

Sahoo, S. (2013). The state and civil society in India: a historical narrative. In S. Sahoo, Civil society and democratization in India: institutions, ideologies and interests (pp. 39-65). London: Routledge.

Sen, S. (1999). Some Aspects of State-NGO Relationships in India in the Post-Independence Era Development and Change 30(2), 327-355. 

Shah, G. (2019). Democracy, civil society and governance. New Delhi: Sage.

Shah, M. (2016). Rights-based activism, engaging the state and leveraging the markets: Possibilities of social transformation. In V. Mudgal (Ed.), Claiming India from Below: Activism and Democratic Transformation, New Delhi: Routledge.

Tandon, R. & Mohanty, R. (2002). Civil Society and Governance. New Delhi: Samskriti.

Van Wessel, M., Hilhorst, D., Schulpen, L., & Biekart, K. (2019). Government and civil society organizations: Close but comfortable? Lessons from creating the Dutch strategic partnerships for lobby and advocacy. Development Policy Review.

Van Wessel, M., Schulpen, L., Hilhorst, T. & Biekart, K. (2017). Mapping the expectations of the Dutch strategic partnerships for lobby and advocacy. Wageningen: Wageningen University & Research.


Civil society and women’s rights

Alvarez, S. E. (1999). Advocating feminism: the Latin American feminist NGO 'boom'. International feminist journal of politics1(2), 181-209.

Anandhi, S., & Kapadia, K. (Eds.). (2017). Dalit women: Vanguard of an alternative politics in India. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis.

Alston, M. (Ed.) (2014). Women, political struggles and gender equality in South Asia. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Batliwala, S., & Friedman, M. (2014). Achieving Transformative Feminist Leadership: A Toolkit for Organizations and Movements. Available at:


Blagescu, M., & Young, J. (2006). Capacity development for policy advocacy: current thinking and approaches among agencies supporting civil society organizations. London: Overseas Development Institute.

Chhibber, P. (2002). Why are some women politically active? The household, public space, and political participation in India. International Journal of Comparative Sociology43(3-5), 409-429.

Deo, N. (2012). Indian women activists and transnational feminism over the twentieth century. Journal of Women’s History24(4), 149-174.

Deo, N. (2016). Mobilizing religion and gender in India: The role of activism. London: Routledge.

Deo, N. and McDuie-Ra, D. (2011). The politics of collective advocacy in India: tools and traps. Sterling: Kumarian Press.

Desai, M. & Naples, N.A. (Eds.) (2002). Women’s activism and globalization. London: Routledge.

Hewamanne, S. (2009). The colour of tears is the same everywhere: Inter-ethnic networking and grassroots organizing among women workers in conflict ridden Sri Lanka. In M. Cox (Ed.), Social Capital and Peace Building (pp. 95-106). London: Routledge.

Jakimow, T. & Kilby, P. (2006). Empowering women: A critique of the blueprint for self-help groups in India. Indian Journal of Gender Studies, 13(3), 375-400.

Jeffrey, P. & Basu, A. (Eds.) (1998). Appropriating gender: Women’s activism and politicised religion in South Asia. London: Routledge.

Kilby, P. (2011). NGOs in India: The challenges of women’s empowerment and accountability. London: Routledge.

Mahmood, S. (2006). Feminist theory, agency, and the liberatory subject: Some reflections on the Islamic revival in Egypt. Temenos-Nordic Journal of Comparative Religion42(1), 31-71.

Nagar, R. & Saṅgatina. (2006). Playing with fire: Feminist thought and activism through seven lives in India. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Nussbaum, M. (2000) Women and development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

O'Hara, C., & Clement, F. (2018). Power as agency: A critical reflection on the measurement of women’s empowerment in the development sector. World Development106, 111-123.

Rajan, G., & Desai, J. (2013). Transnational feminism and global advocacy in South Asia. Abingdon: Routledge.

Ray, R. (2000). Fields of protest: Women’s Movements in India. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Rowlands, J. (1995). Empowerment examined. Development in practice5(2), 101-107.

Saigal, A. (2008). Acts of citizenship: Women’s civic engagements as community-based educators in Mumbai. In S. Fennel & M. Arnot (Eds.), Gender education and equality in a global context (pp. 131-145). London: Routledge.

Singh, R. (2018). Spotted goddesses: Dalit women's agency-narratives on caste and gender violence. Münster: LIT Verlag.

Williams, S. H. (1996). A feminist reassessment of civil society. Indiana Law Journal72, 417-447.


Civil society in the Global South

Behar, A. & Prakash, A. (2006). India: expanding and contracting democratic space. In M. Alagappa (Ed.), Civil society and political change in Asia (pp.191-222). Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Bhattacharyya, D., Jayal, N.J., Mohapatra, B.N., & Pai, S. (Eds.) (2004). Interrogating social capital: The Indian experience. New Delhi: Sage.

Chatterjee, P. (2004). Politics of the governed: Reflections on popular politics in most of the world. New York: Columbia University Press.

Chatterjee, P. (2011). Lineages of political society: Studies in postcolonial democracy. New York: Columbia University Press.

Comaroff, J.L. & Comaroff, J. (Eds.) (1999). Civil society and political imagination in Africa. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Gudavarthy, A. (Ed.) (2014). Re-framing democracy and agency in India: Interrogating political society. London: Anthem.

Ferguson, J. (1994). The anti-politics machine: Development, depoliticization and bureaucratic power in Lesotho. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Hudock, A. C. (1995). Sustaining Southern NGOs in resource-dependent environments. Journal of International Development, 7(4), 653–667.

Hunt, J. (2008). Local NGOs in national development: the case of East Timor. PhD thesis RMIT University

Kabeer, N. (Ed.) (2005). Inclusive citizenship. London: Zed Books.

Kamruzzaman, P. (Ed.) (2018). Civil society in the Global South. London: Routledge.

Kamstra, J., Knippenberg, L., & Schulpen, L. (2013). Cut from a different cloth? Comparing democracy-promoting NGOs in Ghana and Indonesia. Journal of Civil Society9(1), 1-20.

Kamstra, J. &Schulpen, L. (2015). Worlds Apart But Much Alike: Donor Funding and the Homogenization of NGOs in Ghana and Indonesia. Studies in comparative international development, 50(3), 331-357.

Khieng, S. & Dahles, H. (2015). Resource dependence and effects of funding diversification strategies among NGOs in Cambodia. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations26(4), 1412-1437. 

Kontinen, T., & Millstein, M. (2017). Rethinking civil society in development: scales and situated hegemonies. In Forum for Development Studies, 44(1), 69-89.

Kothari, R. (1984) The non-party political process. Economic and Political Weekly, 19(5), 216-224.

Motta, S., & Nilsen, A. G. (Eds.). (2011). Social movements in the global south: Dispossession, development and resistance. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.

Menon, N. & Nigam, A. (2007). Power and contestation: India since 1989. Halifax: Fernwood publishing, and London: Zed Books.

Michael, S. (2004). Undermining development: The absence of power among local NGOs in Africa. Oxford: James Currey. 

Mosse, D. (2005). Cultivating development: An ethnography of aid policy and practice. London: Pluto Press.

Natil, I., Pierobon, C., & Tauber, L. (Eds.). (2019). The Power of Civil Society in the Middle East and North Africa: Peace-building, Change, and Development. London: Routledge.

Ndegwa, S. (1996). The two faces of civil society: NGOs and politics in Africa. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.

Quadir, F. & Tsujinaka, Y. (Eds.) (2015). Civil society in Asia: In search of democracy and development in Bangladesh. Farnham: Ashgate.

Pallas, C.L & Nguyen, L. (2018). Transnational advocacy without Northern NGO partners: Vietnamese NGOs in the HIV/AIDS sector. Non-profit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly.

Ray, R., & Katzenstein, M. F. (Eds.). (2005). Social movements in India: Poverty, power, and politics. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

Schneider, B. (2007). Bottoms Up: Civil society and grassroots democracy in India. Washington College International Studies Review, 4, 23-40.

Sriskandarajah, D., & Tiwana, M. (2014). Towards a multipolar civil society. SUR-International Journal on Human Rights20, 511-517.

Tandon, R, & Mohanty, R. (2003). Does civil society matter? Governance in contemporary India. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Vivian, J (1994). NGOs and sustainable development in Zimbabwe: No magic bullets. Development and Change, 25(1), 167-193.

Weisgrau, M.K. (1997). Interpreting development: Local histories, local strategies. Lanham: University Press of America.

White, G. (1996). Civil society, democratization and development. In R. Luckham & G. White (Eds.), Democratization in the South (pp. 178-219). New York: Manchester University Press.

Whitehead, J. (2015). Au retour a Gramsci: Reflections on civil society, political society and the state in South Asia. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 45(4), 660-676.

Wickramasinghe, N. (2001). Civil society in Sri Lanka: New circles of power. New Delhi: Sage.

Williamson, R. T., & Rodd, J. (2016). Civil society advocacy in Nigeria: promoting democratic norms or donor demands? BMC international health and human rights16(1), 19.

Yarrow, T. (2011). Development beyond politics: aid, activism and NGOs in Ghana. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.


CSO ownership and autonomy

Arensman, B., van Wessel, M. & Hilhorst, D. (2017). Does local ownership bring about effectiveness? The case of a transnational advocacy network. Third World Quarterly, 38(6), 1310-1326.

Ashman, D. (2001). Civil society collaboration with business: Bringing empowerment back in. World Development29(7), 1097-1113.

Banks, N., Hulme, D. & Edwards, M. (2015). NGOs, states and donors revisited: Still too close for comfort? World Development66, 707-718.

Behar, A. & Prakash, A. (2006). India: expanding and contracting democratic space. In M. Alagappa (Ed.), Civil society and political change in Asia (pp.191-222). Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Buiter, W. H. (2007). ‘Country ownership’: A term whose time has gone. Development in Practice17(4 and 5), 647-652.

Chesterman, S. (2007). Ownership in theory  in practice: Transfer of authority in UN statebuilding operations. Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding1(1), 3-26.

Christman, J. (2004). Relational autonomy, liberal individualism, and the social constitution of selves. Philosophical studies117(1), 143-164.

Cramer, C., Stein, H. & Weeks, J. (2006). Ownership and donorship: Analytical issues and a Tanzanian case study. Journal of Contemporary African Studies24(3), 415-436.

Gloeckl, N. (2011). White elephants in the Philippines: Ownership on paper. In B. Tomlinson (ed.), Democratic ownership and development effectiveness: Civil society perspectives on progress since Paris (pp.2015-213). Philippines: IBON Books

Ma, J. & DeDeo, S. (2017). State power and elite autonomy in a networked civil society: The board interlocking of Chinese non-profits. Social Networks54, 291-302.

Meyer, S. & Schulz, N. (2008). Ownership with adjectives. FRIDE Synthesis report-donor harmonisation: Between Effectiveness and democratisation. Available at: http://www. fride. org/publication/435/ownership-with-adjectives

Mitlin, D., Hickey, S., & Bebbington, A. (2007). Reclaiming development? NGOs and the challenge of alternatives. World Development35(10), 1699-1720.

Mosse, D. & Lewis, D. (Eds.) (2005). The aid effect: Giving and governing in international development. London: Pluto Press.

Oliver, C. (1991). Network relations and loss of organizational autonomy. Human Relations44(9), 943-961.

Pfeffer, J. & Salancik, G. R. (1978). The external control of organizations: A resource dependence perspective. New York: Harper and Row.

Pieck, S. A. & Moog, S. A. (2009). Competing entanglements in the struggle to save the Amazon: The shifting terrain of translation civil society. Political Geography28, 416-425.

Saeki, E. (2011). Democracy and troubled autonomy: Sectarian politics and civil society in Japan. Journal of Civil Society7(4), 385-405.

Tomlinson, B. (Ed.) (2011). Democratic ownership and development effectiveness: Civil society perspectives on progress since Paris. Philippines: IBON Books.

Townsend, J. G., Porter, G., & Mawdsley, E. (2004). Creating spaces of resistance: development NGOs and their clients in Ghana, India and Mexico. Antipode36(5), 871-889.

Waddell, S. (2000). New institutions for the practice of corporate citizenship: Historical, intersectoral, and developmental perspectives. Business and Society Review105(1), 107-126.

Walker, M., and Christie, K. (2015). Where Change Happens: How International NGOs are Shifting the Focus of Their Advocacy & Campaigning Toward the Global South. London: The Eden Stanley Group, Ltd.

Wang, S. (2006). Money and autonomy: Patterns of civil society finance and their implications. Studies in Comparative International Development40(4), 3-29.

Williams, S. H. (1996). A feminist reassessment of civil society. Indiana Law Journal, 72, 417-447.

Zimmermann, F. (2007). Ownership in practice. Paris: OECD Development Centre. 


Diversity in civil society

Ansari, K.A. (2011). Pluralism, civil society and subaltern counterpublics. Utrecht: Kosmopolis Institute, University for Humanistic Studies.

Banks, N., Hulme, D. & Edwards, M. (2015). NGOs, states and donors revisited: Still too close for comfort? World Development66, 707-718.

Bradley, T. (2011) Religion and gender in the developing world: Faith-based organizations and feminism in India. London: I. B. Tauris.

Clarke, G. & Jennings, M. (Eds.) (2008). Development, civil society and faith-based organizations. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Gellner, D.N. (Ed.) (2010). Varieties of activist experience: Civil society in South Asia. New Delhi: Sage.

Goswami, D. & Tandon, R. (2013). Civil society in changing India: Emerging roles, relationships and strategies. Development in Practice23(5-6), 653-664.

Keane, J. (1988). Democracy and Civil Society. Verso: London.

Mitra, S. K. (2017). India’s Democracy at 70: Civil Society and Its Shadow. Journal of Democracy28(3), 106-116.

Muukkonen, M (2009). Framing the field civil society and related concepts. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly38(4), 684-700.

Rainey,S., Wakunuma, K., & Stahl, B. (2017). Civil society organizations in research: A literature-based typology, Voluntas, 28:1988-2010.

Sahoo, S. (2017). Market  liberalism, marginalized citizens and countermovements in India. Asian Studies Review, 41(1), 1-19. 

Sahoo, S. (2013). Civil society and democratization in India. London: Routledge.

Saz Carranza, A. & Ospina, S. M. (2011). The behavioral dimension of governing interorganizational goal-directed networks. Managing the unity-diversity tension. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 21(2), 327-365. 

Shah, M. (2014). Civil society and Indian democracy. Possibilities of social transformation. Economic and Political Weekly, 49(8), 37-42. 

Srivastava , S. S. & Tandon, R. (2005). How large is India's non-profit sector? Economic and Political Weekly, 40(19), 1948-1952.

Tandon, R. (2017). The hidden universe of non-profit organizations in India. Economic and Political Weekly, 52(3), 79-84. 

Tandon, R. (2001). Civil society in India: An exercise in mapping. Innovations in Civil Society 1(1), 2-9. 



Alcoff, L. (1991-1992). The problem of speaking for others. Cultural Critique, 20, 5-32.

Alagappa, M. (2004). Civil society and political change in Asia: expanding and contracting democratic space. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Barnes, C., van Laerhoven, F., & Driessen,P. P. J. (2016). Advocating for change? How a civil society-led coalition influences the implementation of the forest rights act in India. World Development, 84, 162-175. 

Benessaieh, A. (2011). Global civil society: Speaking in northern tongues? Latin American Perspectives38(6), 69–90.

Berglund, H. (2009). Civil Society in India: Democratic Space or the Extension of Elite Domination? Working Paper, Stockholm: Department of Political Science, Stockholm University

Castello, G., Gurza-Lavalle, A., & Houtzager, P. P. (2007). Civil organizations and political representation in Brazil’s participatory institutions. In A. Cornwall & V. Schattan Coelho (Eds.), Spaces for change? The politics of citizen participation in New Democratic Arenas (pp.114-130). London: Zed Books.

Chandhoke, N. (2003). The Conceits of Civil Society. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Chandhoke, N. (2005). Revisiting the crisis of representation thesis: the Indian context. Democratization, 12, 308-330.

Cornwall, A. (2002). Making spaces, changing places: Situating participation in development. Sussex: Institute of Development Studies. 

Dempsey, S. E. (2009). NGOs, communicative labor, and the work of grassroots representation. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies6(4), 328–345.

Dias, C. & Sudarshan, R. (2007). Introduction: Inclusive Governance for  Human Development, in Towards Inclusive Governance: Promoting the  Participation of Disadvantaged Groups in Asia-Pacific. Bangkok: UNDP

Dryzek, J S, & Niemeyer, S. (2008). Discursive representation. American Political Science Review, 102(4), 481-493. 

Fisher, W. F. (1997). Doing good? The politics and antipolitics of NGO practices. Annual Review of Anthropology26(1), 439-464.

Ganguly, S. (2015). Deliberating environmental policy in India: participation and the role of advocacy. New Delhi: Routledge. 

Gaventa, J. (2006). Finding the spaces for change: A power analysis. IDS Bulletin, 37(6), 23-33. 

Hansen, T. B. (2004). Politics as permanent performance: The production of political authority in the locality. In J. Zavos, A. Wyatt, & V. Hewitt (Eds.), The politics of cultural mobilization in India (pp. 19-36). Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Harriss, J. (2005). Political participation, representation and the urban poor. Findings from research in Delhi. Economic and Political Weekly, 40(11), 1041-1054.

Holzscheiter, A. (2016). Representation as power and performative practice: Global civil society advocacy for working children. Review of International Studies42(2), 205-226.

Jaarsma, P., & Welin, S. (2012). Autism as a natural human variation: Reflections on the claims of the neurodiversity movement. Health Care Analysis20(1), 20-30.

Jayal, N. G. (2016). Contending representative claims in Indian democracy. India Review 15(2), 172-195.

Jayal, N. (2006). Representing India. Ethnic diversity and the governance of public institutions. London: Palgrave Macmillan 

Keck, M. (2004). Governance regimes and the politics of discursive representation. In A. Uhlin & N. Piper (Eds.), Transnational activism in Asia: Problems of power and democracy. London: Routledge.

Lama-Rewal, S. T. (2016). Political representation in India: Enlarging the perspective. India Review, 15(2), 163-171.

Macdonald, T. (2008). Global stakeholder democracy: Power and representation beyond liberal states. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Maia, R C M. (2012). Non-electoral political representation: Expanding discursive domains. Representation, 429-443.

Mansbridge, J. (2003). Rethinking representation. The American Political Science Review, 97(4), 515-528. 

Michelutti, L. (2004). ‘We (Yadavs) are a caste of politicians’: Caste and modern politics in a north Indian town. Contributions to Indian Sociology38(1-2), 43-71.

Matti, S, & Sandström, A C. (2011). The rationale determining advocacy coalitions: Examining coordination networks and corresponding beliefs. Policy Studies Journal, 39(3), 385-410.

Mosse, D. (2018). Caste and development: Contemporary perspectives on a structure of discrimination and advantage. World Development, 110, 422-436. 

Näsström, S. (2015). Democratic representation beyond election. Constellations22(1), 1–12.

Nyamugasira, W. (1998). NGOs and advocacy: How well are the poor represented? Development in Practice, 8(3), 297-308

Omvedt, G. (1994). Peasants, dalits and women: Democracy and India's new social movements. Journal of Contemporary Asia,24(1), 35-48

Peruzzotti, E. (2006). Civil society, representation and accountability: Restating current debates on the representativeness and accountability of civic associations, in L. Jordan and P. van Tuijl (eds.) NGO Accountability: Politics, Principles and Innovations. London: Earthscan

Philips, A. (1995). The politics of presence. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Pitkin, H F. (1967). The concept of representation. California: University of California Press.

Rajasekhar, D. (2003). Opportunities and challenges for voluntarism in India. In A. K. Mehra, A. K. Singh & G. W. Kueck (Eds.), Society, politics and the voluntary sector. New Delhi: VANI.

Rowlands, J. (1997). Questioning empowerment Oxford: Oxfam.

Rubenstein, J. C. (2014). The misuse of power, not bad representation: Why it is beside the point that no one elected Oxfam. Journal of political philosophy22(2), 204-230.

Sahoo, S. (2013). Civil society and democratization in India: Institutions, ideologies and interests. London: Routledge.

Saward, M. (2009). Authorisation and authenticity: Representation and the unelected. Journal of Political Philosophy, 17(1), 1-22. 

Saward, M. (2010). The representative claim. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Saward, M.  (2005). Governance and the transformation of political representation, in Newman, J. (Ed.). Remaking governance: Peoples, politics and the public sphere (pp. 179-194). Bristol: Policy Press.

Shah, M. (2014). Civil society and Indian democracy. Possibilities of social transformation. Economic and Political Weekly49(8), 37-42.

Urbinati, N. (2000). Representation as advocacy. Political Theory, 2(86), 758. 

Urbinati, N., & Warren, M. E. (2008). The concept of representation in contemporary democratic theory. Annual Review of Political Science11, 387-412.

Weldon, S L (2011). When protest makes policy: How social movements represent disadvantaged groups. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

White, S.C. (1999). NGOs, civil society and the state in Bangladesh: The politics of representing the poor. Development and Change, 30, 307-326.

Young, I M. (2002). Inclusion and democracy. Oxford: OUP.

Peruzzotti, E. (2006). Civil society, representation and accountability: Restating current debates on the representativeness and accountability of civic associations, in L. Jordan and P. van Tuijl (eds.) NGO Accountability: Politics, Principles and Innovations. London: Earthscan


Roles of civil society

Banks, N., Hulme, D., & Edwards, M. (2015). NGOs, states, and donors revisited: Still too close for comfort? World Development66, 707-718.

Chandhoke, N. (2001). The ‘Civil’ and the ‘Political’ in Civil Society. Democratization, 8(2),1-24.

Fisher, W.F. (1997). Doing good? The politics and anti-politics of NGO practices. Annual Review of Anthropology, 26, 439-464.

Forsch, S. (2018). Moving to the Global South: an analysis of the relocation of international NGO secretariats. St Antony's International Review, 13(2), 159-186.

Ghosh, B. (2009). NGOs, civil society and social reconstruction in contemporary India. Journal of Developing Societies25(2), 229-252.

Hilhorst, D. J. M. (2007). The art of NGO-ing: Everyday practices as key to understanding development NGOs. In P. Opoku-Mensah, D. Lewis, & T. Tvedt (Eds.), Reconceptualising NGOs and their roles in development (pp. 297-325). Aalborg: Aalborg University Press.

Hilhorst, D. J. M. (2003). The real world of NGOs: Discourses, diversity and development. London: Zed Books.

Kabeer, N. (2005). ‘Growing’ citizenship from the grassroots: Nijera Kori and social mobilization in Bangladesh. In N. Kabeer (Ed.), Inclusive Citizenship (pp. 181-198). London: Zed Books.

Lang, S. (2012). NGOs, civil society, and the public sphere. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lewis, D. & Kanji, N. (2009). Non-governmental organizations and development. London: Routledge.

Magis, K. (2010). Convergence: Finding collective voice in Global Civil Society©. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 21(3), 317-338.

Mercer, C. (2002). NGOs, civil society and democratization: a critical review of the literature. Progress in development studies2(1), 5-22.

Sahoo, S. (2013). Doing development or creating dependency? NGOs and civil society in India. South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, 36(2), 258-272.

Sahoo, S. (2014). Civil society and democratization: A counter-case from India. Democratization, 21(3), 480-500.

Young, O. R. (1997). Global governance: drawing insights from environmental experience. Cambridge: MIT Press.


Theorizing civil society

Anderson, P. (1976). The antinomies of Antonio Gramsci. New Left Review, 100, 5-78.

Alexander, J C. (2006). Global civil society. Theory, Culture & Society, 23(2-3). 

Alexander, J.C. (1997). The paradoxes of civil society. International Sociology, 12(2), 115-133.

Appe, S. Deconstructing civil society ‘maps’: The case of Ecuador. Administrative Theory and Practice35(1), 63-80.

Berman, S. (1997). Civil society and the collapse of the Weimar Republic. World Politics, 49(3), 401-429.

Chambers, S. & Kopstein, J. (2001). Bad civil society. Political Theory, 29(6), 837-865.

Chandhoke, N. (2012). Whatever has happened to civil society. Economic and Political Weekly57(23), 39-45.

Chandhoke, N. (2003). The conceits of civil society. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Chandhoke, N. (2001). The civil and the political in civil society. Democratization, 8(2), 1-24.

Chandhoke, N. (1995). State and civil society: Explorations in political theory. New Delhi: Sage.

Chandhoke, N. (2003). The Assertion of civil society against the state. In M. Mohanty, P. N. Mukherji & O. Tornquist, (Eds.) People’s rights: Social movements and the state in the third world. Delhi: Sage

Chatterjee, P. (2008). Democracy and economic transformation in India. Economic and political weekly43(16), 53-62.

Chatterjee, P. (2004). Politics of the governed: Reflections on popular politics in most of the world. New York: Columbia University Press.

Chhibber, P.K. (1999). Democracy without associations: Transformations of the party system and social cleavages in India. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Dagnino, E. (2011). Civil society in Latin America. In M. Edwards (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Civil Society (pp. 122-133). New York: Oxford University Press. 

Edwards, M. (Ed.). (2011). The Oxford handbook of civil society. New York: Oxford University Press.

Foley, M. W. & Edwards, B. (1996). The paradox of civil society. Journal of Democracy7(3), 38-52.

Howell, J.& Pearce, J. (2001) Civil society and development: A critical exploration. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Fukuyama, F. (2001). Social capital, civil society and development. Third World Quarterly, 22(1), 7-20.

Hardt, M. (1995). The withering of civil society. Social Text, 45, 27-44. 

Kopecky, P. & Mudde, C. (2003). Rethinking civil society. Democratization, 10(3), 1-14.

Harriss, J. (2002). Depoliticising development: The World Bank and social capital. London: Anthem Press.

Kaldor, M. (2007). Civil Society. In J. A. Scholte & R. Robertson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Globalization. New York: Routledge.

Kaviraj, S. & Khilnani, S. (Eds.) (2001). Civil society: History and possibilities. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kumar, K. (1993). Civil society: An enquiry into the usefulness of an historical term. British Journal of Sociology, 44(3), 135-166.

Mahajan, G. (1999). Civil society and its avatars: What happened to freedom and democracy? Economic and Political Weekly34(20), 1188-1196.

Mamdani, M. (1993). The sun is not always dead at mid-night. Monthly Review, 45(3), 27-48.

Oxhorn, P. (1995). From controlled inclusion to reactionary exclusion. In J. Hall (Ed.), Civil society: Theory, history and comparison (pp.250-277). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Stillman, P.G. (1980). Hegel’s civil society: A locus of freedom. Polity, 12(4), 622-646

Tandon, R., & Mohanty, R. (Eds.). (2003). Does civil society matter? Governance in contemporary India. New Delhi: Sage.

Walzer, M. (1992) The civil society argument. In C. Mouffe (Ed.), Dimensions of radical democracy: Pluralism, citizenship and community (pp. 89-107). London: Verso.